A narrowbody Airbus of a comparable size to the succesful Boeing 727 could offer advanced technology, improved operating economics and various passenger capacities. The digital technology in the A320 would herald a two-generation technological leap over the all-analogue Boeing 727 and be a generation ahead of the Boeing 737-300/-400/-500 series. The A320 was targeted at the global fleet replacement requirements for the 727 and early variants of the 737.
The A320 was an evolution from the JET (Joint European Transport) study commenced in June 1977 and based at the then BAe (formerly Hawker Siddeley) site in Weybridge, Surrey, UK. The Hawker Siddeley team had previously produced a design called the HS.134 “Airbus” in 1965, an evolution of the HS.121 (formerly DH.121) Trident, which shared much of the general arrangement of the later JET3 study design. The name “Airbus” at the time referred to a BEA requirement, rather than to the later international programme.
Alongside BAe (who at the time were not part of Airbus) were MBB, Fokker-VFW and Aerospatiale. The design within the JET study that was carried forward was the JET2 (163 passengers), which then became the Airbus S.A1/2/3 series (Single Aisle), before settling on the A320 name for its launch in 1984.
After the oil price rises of the 1970s, Airbus needed to minimise the trip fuel costs of the A320. To that end, Airbus incorporated advanced features including fly-by-wire flight control, composite primary structures, centre-of-gravity control using fuel, glass cockpit (EFIS) and a two-person flight deck. The end result was that the A320 consumed 50% less fuel than the 727. According to a study cited by the Stockholm Environmental Institute, the A320 burns 11,608 kilograms of jet fuel flying between Los Angeles and New York City, which is about 77.4 kilograms per passenger in an A320 with 150 seats.
Bernard Ziegler was the initiator of the aircraft’s then revolutionary fly-by-wire flight controls with sidestick cockpit controller and full glass cockpit. He successfully convinced aviation authorities of the concept’s validity.
Airbus requires about eight months to build an A320 jetliner. Components from various Airbus plants are transported to the final assembly plant at Hamburg Finkenwerder for the A318/A319/A320/A321 and to Toulouse Blagnac for the A320. Nearly all assemblies are moved using Airbus’ A300-600ST ‘Beluga’ outsized transporters.
The Airbus A320s sold to China to be delivered between 2009 and 2012 will be assembled in the People’s Republic of China in Tianjin. Airbus intends to relocate Toulouse A320 final assembly activity to Hamburg for the next generation of short range as part of its Power8 organization plan begun under ex-CEO Christian Streiff.
The A320 family production rate in 2008 was slightly more than 32 aircraft per month. Current EADS ceo Louis Gallois stated in May 2007 that Airbus would be producing 40 narrowbodies per month by the end of 2009, including proposed Tianjin, China-assembled aircraft. However, 2008 marked the high point to date in Airbus narrowbody manufacture (32 aircraft/month), a rate which the EADS division hopes to maintain in 2009 and which is higher than what Airbus forecast less than two years earlier.
The Airbus A320 family are low-wing cantilever monoplanes with a conventional tail unit with a single fin and rudder. They have a retractable tricycle landing gear and are powered by two wing mounted turbofan engines.
Compared to other airliners of the same class, the A320 features a wider single-aisle cabin of 155.5 inches (3.95 m) outside diameter, compared to 148 inches (3.8 m) in the Boeing 737 and 131.6 inches (3.34 m) in the Boeing 717, and larger overhead bins, along with fly-by-wire technology. In addition, the aircraft has a spacious cargo hold equipped with large doors to assist in expedient loading and unloading of goods.
The A320 features an ECAM (Electronic Centralised Aircraft Monitor) which gives the flight crew information about all the systems of the aircraft. With the exception of the very earliest A320s, most can be upgraded to the latest avionics standards, keeping the aircraft advanced even after two decades in service.
The flight deck is equipped with EFIS with side stick controllers. At the time of the aircraft’s introduction, the behavior of the fly-by-wire system (equipped with full flight envelope protection) was a new experience for many pilots.
Three suppliers provide turbofan engines for the A320 series: CFM International with their CFM56, International Aero Engines, offering the V2500 and Pratt & Whitney whose PW6000 engines are only available for the A318 variant.
Technology used in the A320 includes:
- The first fully digital fly-by-wire flight control system in a civil airliner, see A320 flight control.
- Fully glass cockpit rather than the hybrid versions found in aircraft such as the A310, Boeing 757 and Boeing 767.
- The first narrow body airliner with a significant amount of the structure made from composites.
- The ECAM (Electronic Centralized Aircraft Monitoring) concept, which is included in all Airbus aircraft produced after the A320. This system constantly displays information concerning the aircraft’s engines, as well as other key systems such as flight controls, pneumatics and hydraulics, to the pilots on the two LCD displays in the centre of the flightdeck. ECAM also provides automatic warning of system failures and displays an electronic checklist to assist in handling the failure.
- Newer Airbus used LCD (liquid crystal display) units in the flight deck of its A318, A319, A320, and A321 flight decks instead of the original CRT (cathode ray tube) displays. These include the main displays and the backup artificial horizon, which was an analogue display prior to this. LCDs weigh less and produce less heat than CRT displays; this change saves around 50 kilograms on the plane’s total weight.
- Early A320 planes used the Intel 80186 and Motorola 68010, in 1988 Intel 80286 family CPUs. The flight management computer contained six CPUs, running in three logical pairs, with 2.5MBytes of memory.
- Digital Head-up displays are available.
The Joint Aviation Authorities (JAA)) issued the type certificate for the A320 on 26 February 1988. After entering the market in March 1988 with Air France, Airbus expanded the A320 family rapidly, launching the 185-seat A321 in 1989 (first delivered in 1994), the 124-seat A319 in 1993 (first delivered in 1996), and the 107-seat A318 in 1999 (first delivered in 2003).
The A320 family was developed to compete against the Boeing 737 Classics (-300/-400/-500) and the McDonnell Douglas MD-80/90 series, and has since faced challenges from the Boeing 737 Next-Generation (-600/-700/-800/-900) and the Boeing 717 during its two decades in service. As of September 2008, the competitors to the A320 family are the Boeing 737 Next Generation, Bombardier‘s Cseries jet to the A318/A319 and Embraer‘s E-195 jet to the A318
The wing of a BMI Airbus A319-100 landing at London Heathrow Airport, England. The slats at the leading edge and the flaps at the trailing edge are extended.
Airbus has shipped 3,723 A318/A319/A320/A321s since its certification/first delivery in early 1988, with another 2,598 on firm order (31 December 2008). Boeing has shipped 6,000 737s since late 1967, with 4,404 of those deliveries since 1988, and has a further 2,270 on firm order (31 December 2008). Based on figures since 1988 when they first entered direct competition, Airbus delivered on average 177 A320 series aircraft per annum, while on average 209 Boeing 737s were delivered.
The A320 has given rise to a family of aircraft which share a common design but are slightly smaller (the A319), significantly smaller (the A318), or slightly larger (the A321). Passenger capacity ranges from 100 to 220. They compete with the Boeing 737, 757-200, and 717. All have the same pilot type rating. Today all variants are available as corporate jet. US Airways is the largest airline operator of A320 family of aircraft in North America with 214 as of the end of 2009.
Technically, the name “A320” only refers to the original mid-sized aircraft, but it is often informally used to indicate any of the A318/A319/A320/A321 family. All variants are able to be ETOPS (Extended-range Twin-engine Operational Performance Standards) certified.
The A320 series has two variants, the A320-100 and A320-200. Only 21 A320-100s were ever produced; these aircraft, the first to be manufactured, were delivered only to Air Inter (an airline later acquired by Air France) and British Airways (as a result of an order from British Caledonian Airways made prior to its acquisition by British Airways). The A320-200 features wingtip fences and increased fuel capacity over the A320-100 for increased range; other than that differences are minimal. The last five A320-100 aircraft, operated by British Airways, were disposed of at the end of 2007. Typical range with 150 passengers for the A320-200 is about 2,900 nautical miles (5,400 km). It is powered by two CFMI CFM56-5 or IAE V2500 with thrust ratings between 25,500 to 27,000 pounds force (113 kN to 120 kN). The direct Boeing competitor is the 737-800.
The A319 is a shortened, minimum change version of the A320. With virtually the same fuel capacity as the A320-200, and fewer passengers, the range with 124 passengers in a two-class configuration extends to 3,600 nautical miles (6,900 km), the highest in its class. A319s are among the most popular variants of the A320 family. In 2003 easyJet took delivery of A319s with smaller galleys (as EasyJet does not serve meals on some of its shorter flights) and 156 seats in a single class configuration. To satisfy evacuation regulations, additional over-wing exits were included.
With jet fuel prices rising dramatically, Northwest Airlines is replacing the McDonnell Douglas DC-9 aircraft it has had in service for decades with the A319, because it is 27% more fuel efficient than the DC-9.
The large easyJet order of 120 A319s plus 120 options was among the biggest aircraft sales deals in recent times, rivaled only by chief competitor Ryanair‘s order for Boeing 737 aircraft.
This is the corporate jet version of the A319. It incorporates removable extra fuel tanks which are installed in the cargo compartment, and an increased service ceiling of 12,000 m giving a range of 6,500 nautical miles (12,000 km). Upon resale the aircraft can be reconfigured as a standard A319 by removing its extra tanks, thus maximizing its resale value. It is also known as the ACJ, or Airbus Corporate Jet. Producer is Airbus Executive and Private Aviation, it is a part of Airbus S.A.S., an EADS company.
The aircraft seats up to 39 passengers but may be outfitted by the customers into any configuration. DC Aviation and Reliance Industries are among its users. The A319CJ competes with other corporate jets such as the Gulfstream V, the Boeing 737-700 based Boeing Business Jet (BBJ), and Bombardier‘s Global Express. It is powered by the same engine types as the A320.
The A319CJ is used by the Escadron de transport, d’entraînement et de calibrage which is in charge of transportation for France’s officials and was also ordered by the Flugbereitschaft of the Luftwaffe for transportation of Germany’s officials. Since 2003, an ACJ serves as a presidential aircraft of Brazil, Venezuela, Thailand, Czech Republic, Turkey and Malaysia.
The A319LR is a standard A319 that incorporates some features and additional fuel tanks of the A319CJ. Airbus offers it in a standard airline layout, although some customers operate it in an all-business class layout with 48 seats, specifically tailored for exclusive business class services on intercontinental routes. The A319LR, compared to the A319CJ, has typically four removable auxiliary fuel tanks, but can be expanded to six. Range of the A319-115LR with four tanks is 5,600 nmi (10,400 km; 6,400 mi). It is certified for 180 minute ETOPS, which allows both atlantic and pacific routes. Certificated both European JAA and American FAA, the A319LR and ACJ are the only business jets approved for public transport on both sides of the Atlantic.
The Australian Antarctic Division uses an A319-115LR aircraft with a range of 7,500 mi (12,100 km), operated on their behalf by Skytraders, to provide an intercontinental link from Hobart, in Tasmania, to the Wilkins blue ice runway approximately 70 km from their research station at Casey on the Antarctic continent. Each flight can carry 40 passengers together with 6.5 tonnes of cargo.
Lufthansa, Swiss International and Air France operate a premium business service between Europe and the USA using a fleet of A319LRs operated by the French Aero Services Executive and the Swiss PrivatAir. However, Qatar Airways fit their A319LRs with standard seatings with 110 seats. Air France operates the A319LR in a reduced density layout and flies it to the Middle East and central Asia.
The A321 is a stretch of the A320. The A321 program was launched in November 1989 and the first development aircraft first flew on 11 March 1993. European certification was awarded in December that year.
Compared with the A320 the A321’s major change is the stretched fuselage, with forward and rear fuselage plugs totalling 6.93 m (22 ft 9in) (front plug immediately forward of wing 4.27 m/14 ft, rear plug directly behind the wing 2.67 m/8 ft 9in).
Other changes include strengthening of the undercarriage to cope with the higher weights, more powerful engines, a simplified and refined fuel system and larger tires for better braking. A slightly modified wing with double slotted flaps and modifications to the flight controls allows the A321’s handling characteristics to closely resemble the A320’s. The A321 features an identical flightdeck to that on the A319 and A320, and shares the same type rating as the smaller two aircraft.
The basic A321-100 features a reduction in range compared to the A320 as extra fuel tankage was not added to the initial design to compensate for the extra weight. To overcome this Airbus launched the longer range, heavier A321-200 development in 1995 which has a full-passenger transcontinental US range. This is achieved through higher thrust engines (V2533-A5 or CFM56-5B3), minor structural strengthening, and greater fuel capacity with the installation of one, or optionally two 2,900 litre (766US gal/638Imp gal) additional centre fuel tanks.
The A321-200 first flew from Daimler Benz (later DaimlerChrysler, now Daimler AG) Aerospace’s Hamburg facilities in December 1996.
The A318, also known as the “Mini-Airbus” or “baby bus”, is the smallest member of the A320 family, and the smallest Airbus of any kind. It originated from the AVIC and Airbus Industrie Asia cooperation program AE31X. During development, it was known as the “A319M3,” thus indicating its history as a direct derivative of the A319. “M3” indicates “minus three fuselage frames.” The aircraft is six metres shorter and four tonnes lighter than the A320. To compensate for the reduced moment arm it has a larger vertical stabilizer, making it 80 centimetres taller than the other A320 variants. Pilots who are trained on the other variants may fly the A318 with no further certification, since it features the same type rating as its sister aircraft.
The A318 has a passenger capacity of 109 in a two-class configuration. It is intended to replace early Boeing 737 and Douglas DC-9 models, though it is also a rival to the 737-600. Boeing also offered their 717 aircraft as a competitor, although it was suitable primarily for regional routes and did not have the A318’s range capabilities.
The A318 is available with a variety of different maximum take-off weights (MTOW) ranging from a 59 tonne, 2,750 km (1,500 nautical mile) base model to a 68 tonne, 6,000 km (3,240 nautical mile) version. The lower MTOW enables it to operate regional routes economically whilst sacrificing range and the higher MTOW allows it to complement other members of the A320 family on marginal routes. The lighter weight of the A318 gives it an operating range 10% greater than the A320, allowing it to serve some routes that the A320 would be unable to: London-New York, Perth-Auckland and Singapore-Tokyo, for instance. Its main use for airlines, however, is on short, low-density hops between medium cities.
During the design process, the A318 ran into several problems. The first one was the decline in demand for new aircraft following the September 11, 2001 attacks. Another one was the new Pratt & Whitney turbofan engines, which burned more fuel than expected: by the time CFMI had a more efficient engine ready for market, many A318 customers had already backed out, including Air China and British Airways. America West Airlines, which had selected the Pratt & Whitney engines, amended its A318 orders, opting instead for A319 or A320 aircraft. Trans World Airlines canceled a significant order for 50 A318 after being acquired by American Airlines, which does not operate any A320 family aircraft (although neither did TWA when the order was originally placed). While Airbus was hoping to market the A318 as a regional jet alternative, laws in both the U.S. and Europe have kept it in the same class as larger aircraft for calculating landing fees and the like, so regional operators have avoided it.
It is powered by two CFM56-5 or Pratt & Whitney PW6000 engines with thrusts between 21,600 and 23,800 lbf (96 and 106 kN). Launch customers Frontier Airlines and Air France took deliveries in 2003, with Frontier receiving their models in July of that year. The price of an A318 ranges from $56 to $62 million , and operating costs are between $2,500 and $3,000 for each flight hour.
While designing the A318, Airbus included a number of technology upgrades, many of which have been integrated into the rest of the A320 family. Some are also finding their way to the A380 jumbo aircraft. These upgrades include:
- A new touchscreen LCD panel at the flight attendants’ stations in the cabin, to simplify access to environmental and communications controls
- New cabin lighting based on LED light sources, instead of halogen and fluorescent bulbs
- Electrically powered backup braking systems, improving upon the older design using reserve hydraulic pressure
- The use of laser beam welding during construction, used to fasten floor stringers to the lower fuselage shell. Laser welding eliminates the need for rivets to secure the joint, which saves weight, and is faster, saving on assembly time.
Orders for the A318 have been quite slow, but significantly better than for its direct competitor the B737-600. Airbus had received 83 orders (25 July 2009) for this model compared to 69 for the B737-600. The sales pace has been influenced by the strong sales of the Bombardier CRJ900 and Embraer E-Jets series. Notable A318 customers were Air France, 18; Frontier Airlines, 10 (+ 1 order); LAN Chile, 20 orders; and Mexicana, 10 orders. In October 2006 an A318 was successfully tested at London City Airport for steep approach compatibility, which will allow operators to serve airports constrained by noise restrictions, tall buildings or difficult terrain. British Airways operates two A318 aircraft from London City Airport via a refuelling stop at Shannon (on the outbound leg only) to New York Kennedy Airport. They are configured with 32 all business class seats.
On 10 November 2005 Airbus announced the A318 Elite. The Airbus A318 Elite is aimed at the medium-range market for flights of up to 4,000 nm (7,400 km) range, with a choice of two cabin layouts seating up to 14 and 18 passengers, and will be powered by CFM engines. Comlux Aviation became the launch customer by ordering three A318 Elite aircraft.
A programme to convert A320 and A321 aircraft into freighters is being set up by Airbus Freighter Conversion GmbH. Airframes will be converted by EADS EFW in Dresden, Germany, and Zhukovsky, Russia. The launch customer AerCap signed a firm contract on 16 July 2008 to convert 30 of AerCap’s passenger A320/A321s into A320/A321P2F (passenger to freighter). The first aircraft will be ready in 2011 and serial production is scheduled to begin in early 2012. On February 7, 2009, Airbus announced that the technical definition for the P2F version had been frozen, and reaffirmed entry into service in 2012. Also announced were technical details, including 21–28 metric tonnes of payload capacity (depending on variant), a 121-inch (3.1 m) aft cargo door and confirmation that the conversion will have ETOPS, allowing to significantly further range of A320/A321P2F than other freighters of similar size.
|This section requires expansion.|
A320 Enhanced (or A320E) is the working title for a series of improvements of the A320 series. The improvements incorporate engine improvements, an aerodynamic tidy-up, partly by adding large curved winglets, weight savings and a new cabin.
Airbus proposed a re-engining of the A320 to achieve the same 15% improvement in fuel burn over the existing CFM56 and V2500 powerplants as proposed by the Bombardier CSeries. Possible engines include the CFM International LEAP-X and the Pratt & Whitney PW1000G. Airbus CEO John Leahy has stated that Airbus is looking for engine options from IAE partner Pratt & Whitney as well as CFM, but single sourcing the LEAP-X if “Pratt and IAE aren’t ready.”
In 2006, Airbus tested three styles of winglet, intended to counteract the wing’s induced drag and wingtip vortices more effectively than the previous wingtip fence. The first design type to be tested was developed by Airbus and was based on work done by the AWIATOR program. The second type of winglet used a more blended design and was created by Winglet Technology LLC, a company based in Wichita, Kansas as well as the third type.
Two aircraft were used in the flight test evaluation campaign, the prototype A320 F-WWBA which had been retained by Airbus for testing and new F-WWDL which later delivered to JetBlue Airways and registrated as N636JB, which was fitted with both types type of winglets.
Despite the anticipated efficiency gains and development work, Airbus announced that the new winglets will not be offered to customers, claiming that the weight of the modifications required would negate any aerodynamic benefits.
On 17 December 2008, Airbus announced it was to begin flight testing a new Blended Winglet design developed by Aviation Partners as part of an A320 modernization program. The aircraft used for the test program is MSN001 (F-WWBA) the original A320 prototype airframe, powered by the CFM56 engine.
On 15 November 2009, Airbus announced that it would be adding the winglets, called ‘Sharklets’, to A320 aircraft commencing in 2012 with Air New Zealand. The winglets reduce fuel burn by 3.5 percent and offer a payload increase of 500 kg or increase the aircraft’s range by 100 nm at the original payload. This corresponds to an annual CO2 reduction of around 700 tonnes per aircraft.
New Enhanced Cabin
The cabin was fitted to more than 600 aircraft (March 2009) since 2007. Airbus claims it is offering better luggage stowage and a quieter cabin packaged with a more modern look and feel. Additionally an improved cabin efficiency by a new galley concept, reduced weight, improved ergonomics and food hygiene and recycling requirements. LED ambience lighting is optionally available. Anytime LEDs are used for the Passenger Service Unit (PSU) and passengers can get information with touchscreen displays.
Older A320 series aircraft can be updated.
Airbus is studying a future replacement for the A320 series, tentatively dubbed NSR, for “New Short-Range aircraft”.
Airbus is possibly considering partnering with Embraer for a replacement aircraft for the A320 series. In July 2007 it was reported that it may be built in “8-9 years” or “2017 or later”.
The expected follow-on aircraft to replace the A320 is named A30X. Airbus North America President Barry Eccleston states that the earliest the aircraft will be available is 2017. In January 2010, John Leahy, Airbus’s Chief Operating Officer Customers, stated that any all new single aisle craft is unlikely to be constructed before 2024/2025.
By the end of January 2010 a total of 6,539 aircraft of the A320 family have been ordered and 4,148 delivered.
The following chart shows the number of aircraft, by type, delivered to customers in a particular year. The bottom row is the total yearly production of all A320 family aircraft. 2010 data is incomplete.
Accidents and incidents
For the entire A320 family there have been 16 Hull-loss Accidents with a total of 637 fatalities as of January 2010. This corresponds to 0.15 fatalities per aircraft; compared to the Boeing 737 Classic -300 /-400 / -500 with 0.5 fatalities per aircraft its a good result, even when the Boeing was introduced 4 years earlier.
Other occurrences for the A320 include 33 non-fatal incidents such as engine failure, APU fire, runway excursion, and minor collision near gate. There have been 50 incidents of glass cockpit blackout. There have also been seven incidents of nose gear malfunction, including JetBlue Airways Flight 292.
- 26 June 1988 – Air France Flight 296, an A320-111, crashed into the tops of trees beyond the runway on a demonstration flight at Habsheim, France. Three passengers were killed.
- 14 February 1990 – Indian Airlines Flight 605, an A320-231 carrying 146 people, crashed on its final approach to Bangalore Airport. 88 passengers and four crew members were killed.
- 20 January 1992 – Air Inter Flight 148, an A320-111, crashed into a high ridge near Mount Sainte-Odile in the Vosges mountains while on final approach to Strasbourg at the end of a scheduled flight from Lyon. This accident resulted in the deaths of 87 of the aircraft’s occupants (five crew members, 82 passengers).
- 14 September 1993 – Lufthansa Flight 2904, an A320-211, coming from Frankfurt am Main with 70 people, crashed into an earth wall at the end of the runway at Warsaw. A fire started in the left wing area and penetrated into the passenger cabin. The copilot and a passenger died.
- 22 March 1998 – Philippine Airlines Flight 137, an A320-214, crashed and overran the runway of Bacolod City Domestic Airport, RPVB, in Bacolod, Philippines, plowing through homes near it. None of the passengers or crew died, but many were injured and three on the ground were killed.
- 23 August 2000 – Gulf Air Flight 072, an A320-212, crashed into the Persian Gulf on approach to Bahrain Airport. All 143 passengers and crew on board lost their lives.
- 3 May 2006 – Armavia Flight 967, an A320-211, crashed into the Black Sea while attempting to conduct a go-around following its first approach to Sochi Airport, Russia. All 113 passengers and crew on board lost their lives. The accident was a Pilot error / Controlled flight into terrain accident.
- 17 July 2007 – TAM Airlines Flight 3054, an A320-233, was not able to stop while landing at Congonhas International Airport in São Paulo, Brazil. As of 2009, the accident was caused by pilot error (by positioning the throttle out of the “idle” position) and by bad weather. All 187 passengers and crew died with 12 fatalities on the ground, totalling 199 people.
- 30 May 2008 – TACA Flight 390, an A320-233 from San Salvador, overran the runway on its final approach to Toncontín International Airport in Tegucigalpa, Honduras, with bad weather conditions. At least five fatalities.
- 27 November 2008 – XL Airways Germany A320 Flight 888T, a check flight of an A320 which was to be returned to Air New Zealand. All seven people aboard died when it crashed into the sea off the southern French coast.
- 15 January 2009 – US Airways Flight 1549. An A320 en route from New York City LaGuardia Airport to Charlotte, North Carolina, ditched into the Hudson River several minutes after takeoff. All 150 passengers and five crew survived, with only one serious injury. The accident was due to a collision with a flock of birds which disabled both engines.
|A318-100||A319-100 / A319LR /A319CJ||A320-200||A321-200|
|Seating capacity||132 (1-class, maximum)
117 (1-class, typical)
107 (2-class, typical)
|156 (1-class, maximum)
134 (1-class, typical)
124 (2-class, typical)
|180 (1-class, maximum)
164 (1-class, typical)
150 (2-class, typical)
|220 (1-class, maximum)
199 (1-class, typical)
185 (2-class, typical)
|Length||31.44 m (103 ft 2 in)||33.84 m (111 ft 0 in)||37.57 m (123 ft 3 in)||44.51 m (146 ft 0 in)|
|Wingspan||34.10 m (111 ft 11 in)|
|Wing area||122.6 m2 (1,320 sq ft)|
|Wing sweepback||25 degrees|
|Tail height||12.56 metres (41 ft 2 in)||11.76 m (38 ft 7 in)|
|Cabin width||3.70 m (12 ft 2 in)|
|Fuselage width||3.95 m (13 ft 0 in)|
|Cargo capacity||21.21 m3 (749 cu ft)||27.62 m3 (975 cu ft)
|37.41 m3 (1,321 cu ft)
|51.73 m3 (1,827 cu ft)
|Empty weight, typical||39,500 kg (87,000 lb)||40,800 kg (90,000 lb)||42,600 kg (94,000 lb)||48,500 kg (107,000 lb)|
|Maximum take-off weight (MTOW)||68,000 kg (150,000 lb)||75,500 kg (166,000 lb)||78,000 kg (170,000 lb)||93,500 kg (206,000 lb)|
|Cruising speed||Mach 0.78 (828 km/h/511 mph at 11,000 m/36,000 ft)|
|Maximum speed||Mach 0.82 (871 km/h/537 mph at 11,000 m/36,000 ft)|
|Maximum range, fully loaded||3,100 nautical miles (5,700 km; 3,600 mi)||3,600 nautical miles (6,700 km; 4,100 mi)
LR: 5,600 nmi (10,400 km; 6,400 mi)
CJ: 6,500 nmi (12,000 km; 7,500 mi)
|3,200 nautical miles (5,900 km; 3,700 mi)||3,000 nautical miles (5,600 km; 3,500 mi)|
|Take off run at MTOW (at Sea Level, ISA)||1,355 m (4,450 ft)||1,950 m (6,400 ft)||2,090 m (6,900 ft)||2,180 m (7,200 ft)|
|Maximum fuel capacity||24,210 L (5,330 imp gal; 6,400 US gal)||24,210 L (5,330 imp gal; 6,400 US gal) standard
30,190 L (6,640 imp gal; 7,980 US gal) optional
|24,050 litres (5,290 imp gal; 6,350 US gal) standard
30,030 L (6,610 imp gal; 7,930 US gal) optional
|Service ceiling||12,000 m (39,000 ft)|
|Engines (×2)||Pratt & Whitney PW6000 series
CFM International CFM56-5 series
|IAE V2500 series
CFM International CFM56-5 series
|Thrust (×2)||96–106 kilonewtons (22,000–24,000 lbf)||98–120 kilonewtons (22,000–27,000 lbf)||111–120 kilonewtons (25,000–27,000 lbf)||133–147 kilonewtons (30,000–33,000 lbf)|
|A319-111||1996||CFM56-5B5 or 5B5/P|
|A319-112||1997||CFM56-5B6 or 5B6/P or 5B6/2P|
|A319-113||1997||CFM56-5A4 or 5A4/F|
|A319-114||1997||CFM56-5A5 or 5A5/F|
|A319-115||2002||CFM56-5B7 or 5B7/P|
|A319-131||1997||IAE Model V2522-A5|
|A319-132||1997||IAE Model V2524-A5|
|A319-133||2002||IAE Model V2527M-A5|
|A320-111||1988||CFM56-5A1 or 5A1/F|
|A320-211||1988||CFM56-5A4 or 5A4/F|
|A320-214||1996||CFM56-5B4 or 5B4/P or 5B4/2P|
|A320-231||1989||IAE Model V2500-A1|
|A320-232||1993||IAE Model V2527-A5|
|A320-233||1995||IAE Model V2527E-A5|
|A321-111||1995||CFM56-5B1 or 5B1/P or 5B1/2P|
|A321-112||1995||CFM56-5B2 or 5B2/P|
|A321-131||1995||IAE Model V2350-A5|
|A321-211||1997||CFM56-5B3 or 5B3/P or 5B3/2P|
|A321-212||2005||CFM56-5B1 or 5B1/P or 5B1/2P|
|A321-213||2005||CFM56-5B2 or 5B2/P|
|A321-231||1997||IAE Model V2533-A5|
|A321-232||2005||IAE Model V2530-A5|